In an article in Frontiers in Psychology called The Biology of Consciousness, by Edelman et al, it is mentioned that no matter how well a scientific study can explain the biology of how the brain works, there remains the inability to scientifically explain the phenomenal “feel” of conscious experience. (Chalmers 1996). This is the so-called “hard problem”. This article puts forward some interesting ideas on how to start thinking about this “hard problem”. Edelman et al talk about primary consciousness, and refer to the combination of primary and higher order consciousness and place it in the narrative capability, which includes past experience and future plans as well as the ability to be conscious of being conscious.
Interesting reading which can be found at the reference below. It is a pdf document.
Chalmers, D. (1996). The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Edelman et al, (2001). Biology of Consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology | Consciousness Research: Volume 2, Article 4.